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Statecraft and Spacecraft: The History and Future of Space Diplomacy


Laura Montgomery, “The Outer Space Treaty and Prohibited Military Space Activities,” Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, March 2023.

U.S. Secretary of Defense, Tenets of Responsible Behavior in Space, July 7, 2021.

U.S. Space Priorities Framework, available at https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/United-States-Space-Priorities-Framework-_-December-1-2021.pdf.



Beard, Jack M., “Soft Law’s Failure on the Horizon: The International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities” (2016). Space and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications. Paper 87.

Henry Hertzfeld, Ch. 10 “Commercial Space and Spacepower,” Towards a Theory of Spacepower, National Defense University, 2011.

Johnson, Christopher “The Outer Space Treaty at 50,” The Space Review, Jan. 23, 2017.

David A. Koplow, “The Fault Is Not in Our Stars: Avoiding an Arms Race in Outer Space,” 59 Harv. Int’l L.J. 331, 2018.

National Space Policy, December 2020, available at https://www.space.commerce.gov/policy/national-space-policy/.

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, China’s White Paper on Space, January 28, 2022.

United Nations, “United Nations Treaties and Principles On Outer Space, related General Assembly resolutions and other documents,” available at https://spacepolicy101.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/UN-Space-Treaties-1.pdf.

Click here to view Henry Hertzfeld’s slides.

Click here to view Laura Montgomery’s slides.

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